Assignment #2: Interacting with Rad Relying on both textural information and at least two (2) outside references, write a three to five (3-5) page report that answers the following: 1. Describe the behavioral goal you set for Rad in Assignment #1. 2. Choose either Bruner’s or Vygotsky’s Theory of cognitive development, and explain the fundamental tenets of the chosen theory. 3. Describe the key ways that the approach to the desired goal would change with the chosen theory. Explain the assumptions to the chosen theory and the manner in which they may impact Rad or you as the Instructor. The format of the report is to be as follows: · Typed, double spaced, Times New Roman font (size 12), one inch margins on all sides, APA format. · Use headers for each of the subjects being covered, followed by your response. · In addition to the three to five (3-5) pages required, a title page is to be included. The title page is to contain the title of the assignment, your name, the instructor’s name, the course title, and the date. Note: You will be graded on the quality of your answers, the logic/organization of the report, your language skills, and your writing skills. Outcomes Assessed: · Analyze the basic principles of learning theories. · Analyze how cognitive development influences learning ability and styles. · Use technology and information resources to research issues in. Points: 200 Assignment 2: Interacting with Rad Criteria Unacceptable Below 70% F Fair 70-79% C Proficient 80-89% B Exemplary 90-100% A 1. Describe the behavioral goal you set for Rad in Assignment #1. Weight: 15% Did not submit or incompletely met the stated criteria. Partially met the stated criteria. Satisfactorily met the stated criteria. Thoroughly met the stated criteria. 2. Choose either Bruner’s or Vygotsky’s Theory of cognitive development, and explain the fundamental tenets of the chosen theory. Weight: 30% Did not choose or incompletely met the stated criteria. Partially met the stated criteria. Satisfactorily met the stated criteria. Thoroughly met the stated criteria. 3. Describe the key ways that the approach to the desired goal would change with the chosen theory. Explain the assumptions to the chosen theory and the manner in it which they may impact Rad or you as the Instructor. Weight: 30% Did not submit or incompletely met the stated criteria. Partially met the stated criteria. Satisfactorily met the stated criteria. Thoroughly met the stated criteria. 4. 2 References Weight: 5% No references provided Does not meet the required number of references; some or all references poor quality choices. Meets number of required references; all references high quality choices. Exceeds number of required references; all references high quality choices. 5. Writing Mechanics, Grammar, and Formatting Weight: 5% Serious and persistent errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting. Partially free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting. Mostly free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting. Error free or almost error free grammar, spelling, punctuation, or formatting. 6. Appropriate use of APA in-text citations and reference section Weight: 5% Lack of in-text citations and / or lack of reference section. In-text citations and references are provided, but they are only partially formatted correctly in APA style. Most in-text citations and references are provided, and they are generally formatted correctly in APA style. In-text citations and references are error free or almost error free and consistently formatted correctly in APA style. 7. Information Literacy / Integration of Sources Weight: 5% Serious errors in the integration of sources, such as intentional or accidental plagiarism, or failure to use in-text citations. Sources are partially integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Sources are mostly integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Sources are consistently integrated using effective techniques of quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. 8. Clarity and Coherence of Writing Weight: 5% Information is confusing to the reader and fails to include reasons and evidence that logically support ideas. Information is partially clear with minimal reasons and evidence that logically support ideas. Information is mostly clear and generally supported with reasons and evidence that logically support ideas. Information is provided in a clear, coherent, and consistent manner with reasons and evidence that logically support ideas. Introduction The views held by radical behaviorists offer a unique conceptual framework for understanding human behavior. There are differences between basic behaviorism and radical behaviorism. The basic concepts of behaviorism hold that individuals are essentially passive, and respond to their environmental stimuli. Behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Either forms of reinforcement determine antecedent behavior of individuals. Radical behaviorism holds that behavior is more than an outcome of environmental stimuli, and that it can be viewed as a natural science. As a natural science, radical behaviorism adopts a counter-intuitive stance: that behavioral events involve no agency, and can be explained by other natural events (Baum, 2005). This work uses a radical behaviorist approach to develop behavioral goals, determine appropriate reinforces, select procedures for changing behavior, and to implement procedures and record results. Behavioral Goals This section will highlight a number of behavioral goals for Rad. For most part, these goals will focus on the wellbeing of Rad by presenting opportunities for personal development. The first behavioral goal is to impart self-control skills that will be aimed at avoiding any form of destructive addiction. Compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli is a serious concern due to its adverse consequences. Based on the concepts of radical behaviorism, it is possible to condition Rad to exhibit self-control by avoiding harmful addictive behaviors. Another behavioral goal will be to condition Rad to a healthy lifestyle. This will mostly focus on a healthy diet, and engagement in physical activities. Since achieving a heathy lifestyle can be done through different means, the specific course of action that will be used is open to changes. Some of the considerations that will be taken into account include; feedback from Rad, duration needed to attain the behavioral goal, and the input of healthcare practitioners. The final behavioral goal will be for Rad to be more tolerant and patient. These attributes are closely linked, and will be imparted on Rad at the same time. Patience and tolerance are important virtues to a healthy lifestyle. The choice of these two attributes is closely linked with the need to support the other behavioral goals. Appropriate Reinforcers Appropriate reinforcers are important in assisting the attainment of the behavioral goals (Constantine, 2006). In the case of Rad, three key reinforcers will be used; personal items, family, therapy sessions. As an adult, the capacity for Rad to make critical decisions is more advanced. This is one of the main considerations in determining the appropriate reinforcers. Some personal items that Rad cherishes will be taken away, and will be used as reinforcers. It is important for these items to be luxuries that do not directly affect Rad’s wellbeing. It is also important to ensure that Rad will notice the absence of such items, and be motivated to regain them. Family members will also be used to support Rad in attaining the behavioral goals. Relatives have played key roles in the study and performance of behavioral psychology. People tend to form strong bonds with close family members and friends. The field of behavioral psychology has exploited this fact to facilitate the conditioning of individuals by using such close friends and family members as reinforcers. The final reinforcer will be in the form of therapy sessions. Behaviorists will conduct therapy sessions with the aim of identifying Rad’s performance relative to the preset targets. These sessions are expected to be productive where they offer positive reinforcement where success has been achieved, and negative reinforcement in the case of failure. Radical behaviorists in charge of offering ensuring the success of the success of therapy sessions as an appropriate reinforcer have to be aware of the behavioral goals. Procedures for Changing Behavior The process for changing behavior will take a maximum period of six months. The intention will be to achieve the behavioral goals as soon as deemed possible. However, the six-months period should be observed as the phase when all efforts to change Rad’s behavior will end. With relation to the personal items to be used as behavioral reinforcers, they will be taken with the consent of Rad. Further, Rad’s input will be considered where he exhibits obvious signs of participation in the behavioral change process. these items will be offered in exchange for positive signs of behavioral change. To successfully achieve this, these items will be complementary; continually attracting the interest of Rad. This will partly be used as a measure of success in behavior change. The therapy sessions and family support methods will be used in a similar approach. Positive support will be offered when considerable achievements have been achieved towards behavior change. It is important to focus on this positive support as opposed to offering any form of negative reinforcement. In the case of Rad, only positive support will be offered. The aim of the change process is to allow for change. In a personal encounter involving close family members and professionals in behavior psychology, negative reinforcements will not be offered. Procedures and Results Three procedures were used to facilitate behavior change in Rad: use of personal items, use of close family members, and offering therapy sessions. The most successful approach was the use of close family members and behavioral psychologist for support. The aim was to form a bond with Rad, and support any clear indications of behavioral change. Rad was happily responsive to the requirements of the change process. one of the main reasons for the success of this reinforce is that the bond presented a lot of opportunities to facilitate behavioral change. For instance, it was possible to effectively communicate to Rad about the individual efforts that allowed for progress in the process. Rad was hence in a position to focus on such efforts. The use of personal items as a reinforce was not as effective as the other two methods used. A possible explanation for this development is that the participation of Rad in the selection of personal items to be used. Evaluation and Revision In order to determine the success of the behavioral change methods used on Rad, a number of approaches were used. the main approach was the feedback from behavioral psychologists. These professionals were present from the start, and monitored progress all through the change process. this presents them with a chance to present credible evolution of the behavioral change process. although used as a secondary evaluation technique, observation of Rad’s behavior also presented evidence of successful behavioral change. At the end, Rad exhibited self-control tendencies, tolerance, patience and a healthy lifestyle as intended at the start. References Baum W.M. (2005). Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, culture, and evolution (Second Edition) Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Constantine, M. G. (2006). Web-Based Peer Supervision, Collective Self-Esteem, and Case Conceptualization Ability in School Counselor Trainees. Professional School Counseling, 10(2), 146-152.