APA Format 2-3 Pages References No Plagiarism The fourth layer of meaning in comprehensive literacy instruction. Comprehensive literacy instruction not only focuses on balanced literacy program, it also emphasizes student-centered learning. As teachers, we must make decisions about what to teach and how to teach it, so that students view reading and writing as meaning-making activities, rather than as a mere collection of skills. Students need to learn strategies and skills that enable them to make sense of text. Add the strategies we can use to teach each of the five components: Phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency.