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Lecture slides prepared for “Cryptography and Network Security”, 8/e, by William Stallings, Chapter 8 – “Random Bit Generation and Stream Ciphers”.
An important cryptographic function is the generation of random bit streams. Random bits streams are used in a wide variety of contexts, including key generation and encryption. In essence, there are two fundamentally different strategies for generating random bits or random numbers. One strategy, which until recently dominated in cryptographic applications, computes bits deterministically using an algorithm. This class of random bit generators is known as pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) or deterministic random bit generators (DRBGs). The other strategy is to produce bits non-deterministically using some physical source that produces some sort of random output. This latter class of random bit generators is known as true random number generators (TRNGs) or non-deterministic random bit generators (NRBGs).Information Systems Homework Help
The chapter begins with an analysis of the basic principles of PRNGs. Next, we look at some common PRNGs, including PRNGs based on the use of a symmetric block cipher. The chapter then moves on to the topic of symmetric stream ciphers, which are based on the use of a PRNG.
The remainder of the chapter is devoted to TRNGs. We look first at the basic principles and structure of TRNGs, and then examine a specific product, the Intel Digital Random Number Generator.
Throughout this chapter, reference is made to four important NIST documents: Information Systems Homework Help