**IT 353 Information Security Fundamentals Paper**

The objectives of this assignment are:

To process orbital element data for a satellite to determine its position at the data epoch. To use the position data to identify the satellite (and any co-located satellites). The estimated time required for this project for a typical student is 60 – 90 minutes. The time required for each individual student will vary according to that student’s abilities, work practices and familiarity with the subject matte

This is in INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT.

You must NOT discuss the information you are assigned for this assignment

nor your efforts to complete it with any person other than the Instructor/s

and/or an assigned Teaching Assistant.

The objectives of this assignment are:

To process orbital element data for a satellite to determine its position at the data epoch.

To use the position data to identify the satellite (and any co-located satellites). IT 353 Information Security Fundamentals Paper.

The estimated time required for this assignment for a typical student is 60 – 90 minutes.

The time required for each individual student will vary according to that student’s abilities,

work practices and familiarity with the subject matter.

Preparing Your Submission

For this assignment you will create a Microsoft® Word document file

(or a file in a format that is compatible with Word).

The file extension must be “.doc”, “.docx” (as shown below), or “.rtf”.

Note: OpenDocument Format (“.odt”) files are not accepted.

Hint: Change your operating system settings so that file extensions are shown.

WARNING: Do not simply change a file extension – create the file correctly.

Any assignment submitted in a format other than as described above will not be graded.

The name of your file must be “IT-353-202110-xxx-ASS1-userid.ext”,

where xxx is your section number (DL1, DL2, or DL3),

userid is your Mason NetID (as used to log into Blackboard),

and ext is the file extension (see above for allowed extensions),

e.g. “IT-353-202110-DL1-ASS1-jjones9.docx”.

Use of the correct filename is essential to ensure your file is not overwritten when downloaded.

Failure to use the correct filename will result in a 1-point deduction in the score.

If your system is configured to hide file extensions, please ensure your filename does not have

two (one visible, one hidden). Check the actual filename, not just what is shown by default.

You may format your document as you wish, but keep in mind that

the quality of your work is part of the evaluation process – see Q19.

**ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NOW**

Use single spacing for text within a paragraph

– double-spacing within paragraphs will be penalized by a deduction in the score.

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 15

Number your answers to correspond with the numbered questions.

If it is not obvious to the grader which question is being answered,

you will receive no credit for an un-numbered answer.

As a courtesy to those who will read your document,

please save it with the “view size” set to 100%.

Include the following elements at the beginning of your document:

Your full name as it shown in PatriotWeb.

The course number (IT 353)

and section number (DL1, DL2, or DL3).

The semester (Spring 2021).

The assignment title (Assignment 1). IT 353 Information Security Fundamentals Paper.

Provide these elements as text in the body of your document, or in a first-page-only header,

not in a header that is repeated on each page.

Failure to provide the required elements as described

will be penalized by a deduction in the score.

Important Notices

If you receive assistance from an Instructor or Teaching Assistant

in preparing and/or completing this assignment

(other than these directions and any instructions given in class or in Blackboard)

you must acknowledge that assistance (see Q18).

You must not ask for or receive assistance from any person other than the Instructor/s

and/or Teaching Assistants assigned to this course, and you must not assist any other person

in preparing and/or completing this assignment.

You must show all calculations performed, unless the instructions state otherwise.

Hint: The examples below show the appropriate level of detail.

You must perform all calculations yourself, using only the tools described in these directions,

and a calculator or simple spreadsheet functions. You must not use any other software,

whether developed by you or another person, without explicit prior approval from the Instructor.

WARNING: Do NOT restate any part of the question other than the question number

(e.g. Q1″). before providing an answer in your document. Restating the

question will cause a high percentage match figure in SafeAssign and

create unnecessary work for the person grading your assignment.

Restating the questions will be penalized by a deduction in the score.

WARNING: Do NOT include images of any kind in your submission.

All answers must contain only text (including numeric values where appropriate).

Including images in place of a textual answer will result in a score of zero

for that answer and any subsequent answer on which it depends.

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 3 of 15

Some questions include example answers that are incorrect, or even fictitious.

Those examples are intended only to show the format of an appropriate answer

– you should not assume those answers contain valid data.

You are strongly advised to use the formatting shown in the examples in your assignment.

Using the same formatting will help you avoid errors and help the person who grades your

assignment to understand your work and give you as much credit as possible.

In decimal values, show one leading zero before the decimal point if the integer part is 0.

For example:

• 0.0123 is correct, 000.0123 is not.

• 9.87 is correct, 09.87 is not.

• 0.234 is correct, .234 is not.

Do not show trailing zeroes after the decimal point.

For example:

• 1.2 is correct, 1.200 is not.

• 34 is correct, 34.0 is not.

Exception: If a question directs you to show (or round to) a specific number of decimal places

then show trailing zeroes as needed.

When directed to round a value

you need to round up if the first dropped digit is 5 or higher,

and round down if that digit is 4 or lower.

For example, 123.4567 rounded to 1 decimal place is 123.5,

while 765.4321 rounded to 1 decimal place is 765.4.

If directed to show a specific number of decimal places,

you must show exactly that number of decimal places (no fewer, no more) for full credit.

Show a leading zero for the day part of a date,

and show hours, minutes, and seconds in times using 2 digits,

e.g. 2021-DEC-01 02:03:04 EDT.

Q1. Acknowledgement of the directions

It is important that you read and understand all the directions for this assignment.

If you are not sure what is required, check Blackboard Discussions or contact the Instructor.

Once you have read this entire document

include the following statement as your answer to this question:

I have read and understood all the directions for this assignment, especially Q18.

It is not necessary to quote, cite and reference the text of your statement

since it is part of the directions for this assignment.

(1 point)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 4 of 15

Q2. Assigned data

Each registered student will be assigned a unique data set for this assignment.

The assigned data sets will be published to Blackboard in a Discussion Board posting.

Each data set consists of:

– a student’s last name and first name, separated by a comma;

– two lines of 69 characters each, containing orbital element data;

the first line begins with a “1” followed by a space, and

the second line begins with a “2” followed by a space.

Show the date and time when you accessed Blackboard to retrieve your data set,

as in this example:

I retrieved my data set from Blackboard at 2021-DEC-31 23:59:59 EDT. IT 353 Information Security Fundamentals Paper.

WARNING: You must use only the data set assigned to you.

Use of another student’s data set is a violation of the Honor Code.

WARNING: Use of example values shown in these directions will result in a score of zero.

Do not show your data set, just the date and time of retrieval.

(2 points)

Two-line element set format

The orbital element data used in this assignment is generated by NORAD and is known as a two-line

element (TLE) set. The format of the data is documented well at http://celestrak.com/ .

Browse to that Web page and follow the link “Frequently Asked Questions: Two-Line Element

Set Format”. Use that Web page to extract the required data elements from the TLE set.

WARNING: The data assigned to you has been modified to obscure certain details

that you are expected to determine by completing this assignment.

Do NOT attempt to locate the original data – any attempt to do so will be

considered a violation of the Honor Code and referred to the Honor Committee.

NOTE: To ensure the accuracy of your calculations you should copy-and-paste data

– you should NOT attempt to type data values by hand.

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 5 of 15

Q3. Satellite number

The Satellite Number in your TLE set has been modified

to prevent searching for the TLE set.

The modified Satellite Number has no obvious relationship to the original.

You will determine the original Satellite Number in Q17.

To confirm you have the correct TLE set, show the (modified) Satellite Number from line 1,

as in this example:

Modified Satellite Number: XX999

(1 point)

Q4. Epoch

The data elements in the set are valid for the date-time known as the epoch.

To convert the TLE epoch data elements from line 1 (the Epoch Year and

the Epoch Day [which includes the fractional part], 14 characters in total):

– browse to http://mason.gmu.edu/~mlyons3/tle_epoch.html ;

– copy-and-paste the Epoch data from your TLE set into the right-hand box;

– click “Convert”.

Hint: The Epoch for your data set will be within the past calendar year

of the date the data was posted to Blackboard.

The converted data has a “T” between the date part and the time part,

and a trailing “Z” (indicating the “Zulu” time zone, also known as UTC, formerly GMT).

Do not show either of these characters in your answer to this question.

The converted date is shown in the format yyyy-mm-dd,

where yyyy is the year,

mm is the month,

and dd is the day.

Be sure you do not confuse the day and the month.

Incorrect calculation of the date will prevent you from correctly identifying satellite/s.

To avoid any confusion convert the month to a 3-letter abbreviation in upper case,

e.g. convert “12” to “DEC”, as in the example below.

Show the Epoch from your TLE set,

and your converted Epoch in the format yyyyMMMdd hh:mm:ss.fff,

where yyyy is the year,

MMM is the 3-character month abbreviation in UPPER CASE,

dd is the day,

hh is the hour,

mm is the minute,

ss is the second,

and fff is the fraction of a second,

with exactly one space between the date and the time,

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 6 of 15

as in this example:

Epoch (from data set): 15365.99998985

Epoch (converted): 2015DEC31 23:59:59.123

(3 points)

Q5. Inclination

Extract the Inclination from line 2. You should be able to characterize the satellite’s orbital

plane based on the Inclination value, for example an inclination of approximately 90° is

characterized as a polar orbit (since the satellite passes over [or close to] the North and South

Poles in each orbit).

Characterize the orbital plane as precisely as possible based solely on the Inclination value

– do not consider any other orbital elements for this answer.

Show the Inclination from your TLE set, adding a trailing degree symbol ( ° ),

and state your characterization of the orbital plane, as in this example:

Inclination: 88.8888°

This satellite’s orbit is near-polar.

Note: If you are using Microsoft® Word you should select

Insert, Symbol, More Symbols …, and find the Degree Sign symbol.

(5 points)

Q6. Right Ascension of the Ascending Node

Extract the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node from line 2 of your TLE set

and show it, adding a trailing degree symbol ( ° ), as in this example:

Right Ascension of the Ascending Node: 302.2222°

(1 point)

Q7. Eccentricity

Extract the Eccentricity from line 2. You should be able to make an observation

about the satellite’s orbital path from the Eccentricity value.

Show the Eccentricity from your TLE set, adding a leading zero and decimal point ( 0. ),

and state your observation about the orbital path, as in this example:

Eccentricity: 0.999999

The orbital path of this satellite is almost a radial trajectory.

(3 points)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 7 of 15

Q8. Argument of Perigee

Extract the Argument of Perigee from line 2 of your TLE set

and show it, adding a trailing degree symbol ( ° ), as in this example:

Argument of Perigee: 324.4444°

(1 point)

Q9. True Anomaly

In this context the anomaly of the satellite is the angle

between a line joining its perigee to the center of the Earth

and a line joining the satellite’s current position to the center of the Earth.

This angle is one way to express how far the satellite has progressed

along its elliptical path in the current orbit, with the perigee as the starting point.

Your TLE set shows the Mean Anomaly, which would be the anomaly

if the satellite’s speed was constant. Because the satellite’s speed is always changing

we need to determine the True Anomaly (the anomaly at the epoch).

We can do this by first calculating another angle, the Eccentric Anomaly,

and then using trigonometry to calculate the True Anomaly from the Eccentric Anomaly.

Kepler’s equation M = E − ε sin E shows the relationship between

the Mean Anomaly (M), the Eccentricity (ε), and the Eccentric Anomaly (E):

This equation cannot be solved algebraically, but iterative techniques can be used

to quickly find a very good approximation for E given M and ε.

To find an close approximation of the True Anomaly (θ):

– browse to http://www.jgiesen.de/kepler/kepler1.html ;

– copy-and-paste click the Eccentricity and Mean Anomaly values into the appropriate boxes;

– click “calculate Newton” to calculate an approximation using the Newton-Raphson method;

– round the result to 4 decimal places – this is accurate enough for this assignment.

Be sure to round, not just truncate.

The convention is to show anomalies in the range [0°, 360°),

i.e. greater than or equal to 0°, and less than 360°.

If your result is negative then add 360° as in the second example below.

[If you are interested you can click “calculate series” to calculate an approximation using the

series expansion shown above the table. It will calculate the same value (within 8 decimal

places for a small value of e) except that for a non-negative Mean anomaly it will always be

non-negative in the range [0°, 360°), while the Newton-Raphson method will be in the range

(–180°, +180°]. The negative and non-negative values are mathematically identical and either

one may be used in later calculations without affecting the result,

but for this assignment you are required to use the non-negative form.]

continued …

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 8 of 15

Show the Mean Anomaly from your TLE set

and your calculated and rounded value for the True Anomaly,

adding a trailing degree symbol ( ° ) to each,

as in this example where the Newton-Raphson result was positive:

Mean Anomaly: 65.4321°

True Anomaly: 66.6666°

OR as in this example where the Newton-Raphson result was negative

and 360° was added to it:

Mean Anomaly: 65.4321°

True Anomaly: −293.3334° = 66.6666°

(3 points)

Q10. Orbital period

A conventional method to describe the amount of time it takes for a satellite to complete

one orbit around the Earth is the Mean Motion (N) – the number of revolutions [orbits]

around the Earth that the satellite completes in one solar [24-hour] day.

The TLE set shows the Mean Motion using this convention.

A more useful measure is the Orbital Period (Psat) – the amount of time it takes

to complete one orbit. The Orbital Period is conventionally measured in minutes.

Use a calculator to determine the Orbital Period from the Mean Motion for your TLE set,

rounded to 5 decimal places, as in this example:

Psat = [1 / (N rev/day)] × (24 hr/day × 60 min/h)

Psat = [1 / (2.34567890 rev/day)] × (24 hr/day × 60 min/hr)

Psat ≈ 613.89477 min

Show your calculations as in the example.

To check your calculation multiply the Mean Motion by the Orbital Period

– the result should be the number of minutes in one solar day.

Divide that result by the number of minutes in one hour:

– this result should be the number of hours in one solar day

(within a very small rounding error).

Show your calculations for this check.

Show the Mean Motion from your TLE set,

and your calculated Orbital Period rounded to 5 decimal places,

as in this fictitious example:

Mean Motion: 2.34567890 revs/day

Orbital Period: 613.89477 minutes

(3 points)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 9 of 15

Q11. Earth’s rotational period

The Earth rotates around its axis (a line through the North and South poles) once a day.

A day is typically measured as the time taken for the sun to re-appear in a given position

in the sky. This is known as a solar day and the mean value is very close to 24 hours.

The Earth rotates about its axis in the same direction as it orbits around the Sun. IT 353 Information Security Fundamentals Paper.

When the Sun re-appears in the same position the Earth has moved almost 1° further in its orbit

since the orbital period of the Earth (PEarth) is approximately 365.25636 solar days.

(There are 360 degrees in a circle; 1/365.24363 is very close to 1/360,

so in one day the Earth moves almost 1 degree through a complete orbit.

The convention we will use for this assignment is to measure the Earth’s rotation against the

mean vernal equinox. The equinox is precessing (changing very slowly) so the length of a

sidereal day (measured against the mean vernal equinox) is not quite the same as the length of

a stellar day (measured against the fixed stars). At present the sidereal day is 8.4 ms shorter

than the stellar day – the difference is so small that we will ignore it.

Calculate the approximate length of a sidereal day as follows:

– A solar day is 24 hours.

– PEarth is approximately 365.25636 solar days.

– In one solar day the Earth completes one rotation plus (1 / PEarth) of a rotation.

– The sidereal day length is (PEarth ) / (PEarth + 1) solar days.

Hint: The length of a sidereal day is within 5 minutes of the length of a solar day.

Periods are conventionally expressed in minutes

so convert your answer from solar days (24 hour units) to minutes

by multiplying by the number of hours in a solar day

and by the number of minutes in one hour.

Show your calculation, and your answer, as in this incorrect example:

(Show values rounded to 5 decimal places, but do not use the rounded values.)

Sidereal day length: 365.25636 / (365.25636 + 1) days

≈ 10.00274 days

≈ 10.00274 days × 24 hours/day

≈ 240.06576 hours

≈ 240.06576 hours × 60 minutes/hour

≈ 14403.94560 minutes

(3 points)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 10 of 15

Q12. Relative periods

Compare the Orbital Period of your satellite (from Q10 )

to the rotational period of the Earth (the sidereal day length from Q11).

Use appropriate terminology (where possible)

to describe the relationship between the two periods,

as in this fictitious and incorrect example:

The orbital period of this satellite is approximately 10 times

the rotational period of the Earth

so the satellite’s orbit may be described as deciduous.

For this answer consider only the two periods

– do not consider any other orbital elements at this point.

(3 points)

Q13. Type of orbit

Combine your characterizations of the Inclination (from Q5), the Eccentricity (from Q7), and

the Orbital Period (from Q10) of the satellite to determine the type of orbit of the satellite,

using an appropriate technical term for the type of orbit. State your conclusion, as in this

fictitious and incorrect example:

The orbit of this satellite is decadaily.

If you are unable to determine the type of orbit state that fact, as in this example:

I am unable to determine the type of orbit.

(3 points)

Q14. Relative position

Describe the position of the satellite at some point in its orbit in relation to a point on the

surface of the Earth, as in this fictitious example:

The satellite passes over the North Pole once every 2.4 hours approximately.

The example above is for a polar orbit and uses the North Pole as its point

– you should choose a point relevant to your satellite’s orbit type.

Depending on your satellite’s orbit you might not be able to identify a specific point

but you should be able to describe the relationship of the satellite’s position to some point

even if you do not know what that point is.

If you are unable to determine such a relationship state that fact, as in this example:

I am unable to relate the position of the satellite to any point on the Earth.

(3 points)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 11 of 15

Q15. Rotation of the Earth

In order to determine the position of the satellite as seen from the Earth it is necessary to

determine how much the Earth has rotated within the reference frame relative to the fixed point

(the mean vernal equinox). The conventional reference line on the Earth is the meridian

(North-South line) through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England.

The angle between this meridian and the mean vernal equinox can be calculated

from the Greenwich mean sidereal time (GMST).

To calculate GMST as a conventional time of day (in a 24 hour range):

– browse to http://neoprogrammics.com/sidereal_time_calculator/index.php ;

– copy-and-paste the year, month, and day (note the order)

from the converted Epoch you calculated in Q4

into the form under “Local Date”;

– copy-and-paste the hour, minute, and second (rounded to an integer)

from the converted Epoch you calculated in Q4

into the form under “Local Time”;

– set the Time Zone Difference” to “+”, “00”, “00”;

– set the “ΔT (Delta T)” to “+”, “00”, “00”;

– select “Calendar Mode” as “Gregorian”;

– set “Longitude” to “0” (it will change to “00 00 00.0” when computation is performed);

– click “Compute”.

In the computed results find the line

“Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time at Longitude 0.0°”.

On the next line, the first value is the GMST.

(It is shown in hours, minutes, and decimal seconds, and also in decimal hours.)

On the next line, the final value is the GMST converted to an angle

which is known as the Greenwich meridian angle (GMA).

(It is shown in degress, minutes, and decimal seconds, and also in decimal degrees.)

Show the date and the rounded time derived from the Epoch,

the GMST (as shown in the computed result,

in hours, minutes, and decimal seconds),

and the GMA (as shown in the computed result,

in decimal degrees,

rounded to 4 decimal places)

as in this example:

Epoch: 2015DEC31 23:59:59

GMST: 06h 40m 20.840s

GMA: 100.0868°

(10 points)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 12 of 15

Q16. Satellite longitude

The position of the satellite over the Earth can be calculated from the satellite’s position within

the reference frame relative to the Earth’s position in the same frame. For this assignment we

will calculate only the satellite’s longitude (its position due North/South of a point on the

Earth’s equator, expressed as an angle relative to the Greenwich meridian at the equator).

Calculate the satellite’s longitude within the reference frame (LONGframe) as follows:

– take the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) from Q6;

– add the Argument of Perigee (AofP) from Q8;

– add the True Anomaly (TA) from Q9;

– if the result is greater than or equal to 360° then subtract 360°;

repeat this step until the result is less than 360°.

Example:

LONGframe = RAAN + AofP + TA

LONGframe = 302.2222° + 324.4444° + 66.6666°

LONGframe = 693.3332°

This is more than 360° so we subtract 360°:

LONGframe = 693.3332° − 360°

LONGframe = 333.3332°

Calculate the satellite’s longitude relative to the Earth (LONGEarth) as follows:

– take the satellite’s longitude within the reference frame (LONGframe) from above;

– subtract the Greenwich meridian angle (GMA) from Q14;

– if the result is negative then add 360°.

Example:

LONGEarth = LONGframe – GMA

LONGEarth = 333.3332° − 100.0872°

LONGEarth = 233.2460°

This result is not negative so no adjustment is needed.

By convention the Greenwich meridian is the reference longitude 0°

**ORDER A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER NOW**

and the longitude of a point on the Earth is measured east or west of the reference value.

If your LONGEarth is less than or equal to 180° it is easterly and is your satellite longitude –

show it with a suffix “E” as in this example (not related to the examples above):

LONGsat = LONGEarth

LONGsat = 179.1234° E

otherwise subtract your LONGEarth from 360° to obtain a westerly satellite longitude

(in the range 0 to less than 180°) and show it with a suffix “W”, as in this example:

LONGsat = 360° − LONGEarth

LONGsat = 360° − 233.2460°

LONGsat = 126.7540° W

Your answer must be in the range 0 to 180°, and it must be “E” or “W” (except 0).

Show your calculations of LONGframe, LONGEarth, and LONGsat,

as in the three examples above, and your results rounded to 4 decimal places.

(10 points)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 13 of 15

Q17. Satellite identification

You now have enough information to identify your satellite

and any satellites that may be co-located with it.

Browse to http://www.n2yo.com/satellites/ .

Choose a category based on your conclusion in Q13.

If you did not make a conclusion search each of the categories in turn.

On the page that is produced after you click on a Category

click on one of the column headings to sort by that value to make the next step easier.

Round your Period (from Q10), Inclination (from Q5), and Longitude (from Q16)

to one decimal place. Use the information on the Web site to find all satellite/s

within ± 0.1 minutes of the rounded Period, within ± 0.5° of the rounded Inclination,

and within ± 0.2° of the rounded Longitude of your satellite.

Each of the values from the Web site must be within the ± margin shown

of the corresponding rounded value you calculated for your satellite

If a Longitude is not shown with a suffix of “E” or “W”, treat a negative value as westerly.

Note: You TLE set is from an actual satellite. You should find at least one

and typically more than one satellite within your search ranges.

If you cannot find at least one satellite you have most likely made an error

and should go back and check every step.

Show your search parameters (including the plus/minus margins).

Show the URL of the sorted category Web page you used to identify the satellite/s

and the date-time when you accessed it.

For each satellite that matches your parameters (within the margins)

show its name, NORAD ID, Period, Inclination, and Longitude.

The following is a fictitious example for two co-located satellites:

Search parameters:

Period: 99.9 ± 0.1 minutes

Inclination: 89.9° ± 0.2°

Longitude: 179.9° W ± 0.2°

Reference:

Web page: http://www.n2yo.com/satellites/?c=999&xxx=999

Accessed: December 31, 2021 12:34 p.m.

Satellite/s found:

Satellite name: IT353 SAT-A

NORAD ID: 35301

Period: 99.9 minutes

Inclination: 89.9°

Longitude: 179.9° W

Satellite name: IT353 SAT-B

NORAD ID: 35302

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 14 of 15

Period: 99.8 minutes

Inclination: 90.0°

Longitude: 179.7° W

(20 points)

Acknowledgments

Q18. Include one of the following statements as your answer to this question:

Except as explicitly acknowledged above (in the form of citations and

reference listing details), I did not receive any assistance from any other

person in preparing and completing this assignment.

OR

In addition to the reference sources explicitly acknowledged above (in the

form of citations and reference listing details), I received assistance in

preparing and completing this assignment as follows:

Name:

Title/Relationship:

Organization:

Assistance given:

If you received assistance from anyone, use the second statement and complete the last 4 lines.

If you received assistance from more than one person, repeat the last 4 lines as needed.

(If the assistance given was in Blackboard Discussions for this course section,

it is not necessary to acknowledge it here.)

(No points, but you will receive zero credit for this entire assignment

if you do not complete this section as directed.)

Copyright © 2021 Michael X. Lyons. All rights reserved. Page 15 of 15

Q19. All students are expected to be able to write in a professional manner. Spelling, grammar,

clarity of expression, visual quality and clear, concise, effective communication are important

aspects of your written work. The quality of your submission will be evaluated in addition to

the content you produce.

Use a fixed-width font (e.g. Courier New, as in the examples above)

where appropriate to make your message data and calculations easy to read.

DO NOT write your entire assignment in a fixed-width font,

as it makes regular text hard to read.

– Failure to use a fixed-width font where appropriate,

or use of a fixed-width font for regular text,

will be penalized by a deduction in the score.

As IT students you are expected to be able to use relevant features

of a word-processing application where appropriate.

– Obvious spelling and/or grammatical errors (that should have been detected

by the spelling and grammar-checking functions of a word processing application)

will be penalized by a deduction in the score.IT 353 Information Security Fundamentals Paper.