Montevideo criteria

Even if a seceding sub-unit of a state fulfills the Montevideo criteria for recognition as a state, it does not automatically become a state.
Critically discuss this statement. You should refer in your answer to at least two of the following cases studies: Catalonia, Crimea, Kosovo and/or Kurdistan.


• A. Cassese, International Law (Oxford University Press, 2005) 
• M. Shaw, International Law (Seventh Edition, 2014, Cambridge University Press)
• M. Evans (ed.), International Law (Fourth Edition, 2014, Oxford University Press). 
You will find extracts of texts, cases and materials in 
• D. Harris and S. Sivakumaran, Cases and Materials on International Law (Eighth Edition,2014, Sweet and Maxwell).

Important Cases and Legal Materials:

Reparations Case (1949) 16 ILR 318.
Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 1933
Tinoco Arbitration (1923) 2 AD 34
Carl Zeiss Stiftung v Rayner & Keeler Ltd. (No. 2) (1967) 1 AC 853
Reference Re the Secession of Quebec (1998) 2 S.C.R 217
Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion of 22 July 2010 (

1. R. Rich, ‘Recognition of States: the Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union’, (1993) 4 EJIL 1993, 36-65
2. A.V. Lowe and C. Warbrick, ‘Recognition of States’ (1992) 41(2) ICLQ 473.
3. S. Talmon, “The Constitutive versus the Declaratory Theory Of Recognition: Tertium Non Datur?” (2004) 75 BYIL 101-182
4. C. Ryngaert and S Sobrie. “Recognition of states: International law or realpolitik? The practice of recognition in the wake of Kosovo, South Ossetia, and Abkhazia.” (2011) 24 Leiden journal of international law 67
5. M. Craven, ‘Statehood, Self-determination, and Recognition’, in M. Evans (ed.), International Law, Oxford University Press, 2010, 203.

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